The Federal Government has presented a bill in April 2007, on which the Bundestag will decide in the next few weeks.

Since the Bundestag favorable decision in February 2006, the situation has changed dramatically:

  • The Federal Constitutional Court has expressly “outside the existing statistical purposes strict ban on the collection of personal data on stock” confirmed in its judgment given in April 2006 dragnet decision.
  • The European Court of Justice ruled in May 2006 that the EC guidelines to facilitate the prosecution are not permitted. Member States are solely responsible for this area.
  • In June 2006, Ireland has sought the annulment of the EC Directive on data retention before the European Court of Justice.
  • Research Service of the Federal Parliament has expressed serious doubts about the legality of the Data Retention Directive in a legal opinion, August 2006. He also calls into question whether a constitutional implementation in Germany is at all possible.

Make sure the Bundestag deputies of CDU and the SPD, data retention in Germany at least not as long as introduce to the European Court of Justice has ruled over Ireland for annulment.

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Aumentarán en 300 los dentistas de la red pública.

President Piñera announced that will issue the dental care for children between 12 and 18 years of a stratum-specific when they must undergo two types of treatments: shutter and Endodontics.

Today dental treatments are covered by warranties boom only for six year olds. Today I want to make an important announcement to the Chilean dental health”, said the President.

“In the coming weeks we will implement free choice, with bonus of 40 percent by the State, for beneficiary children over 12 and under 18, of groups B, C and D of Fonasa for fillings and root canal treatments dental”, explained.

“And we will increase by 300 dentists specializing in the public network, thus giving one further step towards the solution of the serious problem of dental health, affecting our population,” added.

Source: Dentist  Albuquerque

Accidente de tráfico
On the proposal of the Ministry of Justice, the Council of Ministers has approved a Bill which would reform the system of assessment of damages caused to persons in road traffic accidents. Justice estimated that modification of the compensation for death of the victim will increase an average of 50 per cent and allowances by aftermath around 35 per cent of average – according to Personal injury attorney Boca Raton.

The Bill includes, among other things, compensation for the costs of treatment of injuries by insurers to public health services and changes the method of calculation of compensation to victims, as it has indicated the Ministry.

Updating of the scale is one of the measures that claimed the associations of drivers and victims of trafficking as urgent need and last March claimed that “victims can not wait more,” so it established a deadline for the entry into force of the text on January 1 next year. The Government hopes that the standard has the approval of the Parliament “at this session”.

According to justice, the new scale will expand the level of detail in the criteria that determine the amount of compensation in respect of compensation for expenses and aims to “rationalize” the calculation of the “profits”, i.e. the legitimate gain part of the victim.

To “rationalize” it, the new system will replace the previous model with a new one from the scope of the insurance which will determine the appropriate compensation.

El Gobierno aumenta un 50% la indemnización por muerte en accidentes de tráfico

New skins

New conditions of this compensation will take into account not only the net income of the victim but also aspects as work at home (such as household tasks) or the loss of future capabilities of minors or students, who also will be a quantification in economic terms.

For the calculation of the amounts, will be a coefficient that influence all the factors referred to in the standard, so the amount corresponding to each victim will not depend on fixed sections but a spreadsheet from a combination of factors such as the duration of the injury, the risk of death of the injured person and the deduction of public pensions , among others, as it has indicated the Ministry.

Follow-up Committee

Bill contemplates the creation of a Commission to track the process of implementation of the new system, analyze its implementation underway and their legal and economic implications in order to make suggestions for modification and improvement of the standard.

According to the Ministry, in the text adopted by the Executive, provides that in cases in which the death of the victim occurs, it ensures that there will be an improvement in the perception of compensation derived from the “individualization” of the victim, although he is will be taking into account the “new family structures”.

In addition, distinguishes between the patrimonial prejudice to basic, which corresponds to “reasonable expenses” resulting from the death, who shall be a minimum of 400 EUR compensation amount, and specific expenses, which are associated with other items such as the transfer or repatriation of the deceased, funeral and burial.

The new text also includes an “update” of the medical scale of the consequences that the accidents in the case of victims not killed, in order to “adapt it to the current state of the science”.

For victims suffering from serious injury, the new scale is intended to “strengthen” support to the “large injured” who suffer as a result any disability that requires “intensive support” to their personal autonomy, and compensate for the damages and consequential damages associated to future welfare expenditure items.

On the other hand, in relation to temporary injuries, seeks to respond to “all those expenses necessary and reasonable that generates the lesion in the ordinary development of the daily life of the injured”, although distinguish “healthcare” and “different compensable expenses”.

They are examples of headings that correspond them compensation, for example, the increase in costs of the injured, the movements of family members to assist mobility or expenses to attend family children or especially vulnerable people injured, was responsible as explained justice.

Finally, in the case of damages “extra property”, the draft law includes the restructuring of basic personal injury with the intention of “expanding it”, through the configuration of the handicapped in five autonomous categories: spouse, ascendants, descendants, brothers and relatives. According to the criteria of Justice, all of them “suffer always a compensable prejudice to the same amount, irrespective of which comply with or not with other categories of workers affected.”

Relay in the Government

On the other hand, the Government has relieved the delegates of the Government of Madrid, Castilla – La Mancha and Castilla y León, to attend all of them as candidates of the people’s Party in the coming election on May 24.

In this way, the hitherto delegate of the Government of Madrid, Cristina Cifuentes, has been replaced in this role by the Treasury of the City Council of the capital, Concepción Dancausa, delegate right hand of the Mayor, Ana Botella. Cifuentes is the candidate of the PP for the capital.

Both in Castilla – La Mancha and Castilla y León present delegates have been replaced by two of his officers by sub-delegation. In this way, Juan Carlos Suarez-Quiñones relieves Ramiro Ruiz Medrano, who will become candidate for the courts of Castilla y León.

In the case of manchego, Jesús Labrador will become the PP candidate for mayor of Toledo, so it has given witness to the up to now ‘number two’ of the Government delegation in Toledo, José Julián Gregorio.

Green light to the Natural Heritage and biodiversity Act

In addition, the Council of Ministers has approved this Friday refer to courts for processing the draft law of Natural Heritage and biodiversity which incorporates several new features and international regulations and which environmental information of the surfaces with any figure of protection will be incorporated in the property register and cadastre.

The standard aims to support the activities compatible with the conservation of the Natura 2000 network and incorporates among its principles the prevention of climate change, according to the Ministry of agriculture, food and environment (MAGRAMA).

The Vice-President of the Government, Soraya Saez de Santamaría, explained, in the press conference following the Council of Ministers, that the standard is approved to give “maximum protection and information properties in protected spaces,. Since this information will be incorporated in the register of property and the land registry

In this sense, the Executive ensures that the law is changed to ‘improve the regime of protection, conservation and restoration of biodiversity in Spanish, the richest of all the European Union’, with more than 9,000 species of plants and more than 60,000 species of fauna, and has a surface of protected areas of 13.7 million hectares on land and 8 million hectares in sea.

Food quality

Bill of food quality contemplates putting up the code of good business practices, as well as the Observatory on the food chain, as well as developing actions to advance the cooperative integration, which will have a budget of EUR 257 million.

The objective of this measure is the establish a uniform framework for the quality control in the whole country and “conquer international markets”.


The Council of Ministers has also today approved the third edition of the Integral Plan of support to the competitiveness of the retail trade, a program that contains 34 measures and that, excluding actions such as ICO or Plan Pive lines, mobilize funds $ 26.8 million, more than six times more.

The measures aimed exclusively at trade amounted to 4 million in 2013 and 3.7 million by 2014.

In its previous editions, the plan benefited 38.691 establishments – 13.633 in 2013 and in 2014 – 25.058, said today the Vice President of the Government, who pointed out that trade retailer generates 5% of GDP and about 11% of employment.

In its third edition, the actions that are carried out through the cooperation agreement signed with the Chamber of Commerce of Spain will have a budget of 5 million euros, 20.5% more.

The Cabinet meeting (which is not called for 15 days due to the parentheses of Holy week) has been presided over by the Chief Executive, Mariano Rajoy, and she attended by all Ministers except the Interior, Jorge Fernández Díaz, who will travel to Barcelona to join the Kings in the Act of providing scholarships of la Caixa.




Dr. Gilberto Pucca Junior and Dr. Karen Glerum DDS have been implemented in Brazil something that few countries have: a national policy of consistent oral health. It is an example for Latin America, which has shown an unprecedented success in offering free care to the population and employment to dentists

Pucca, who is the national coordinator of oral health of the Ministry of health of Brazil, has been who has designed the structure of this national policy that, in a very short time, has managed to offer not only basic but also specialized, dental coverage to a large percentage of the Brazilian population.

Dr. Pucca, who participated in the first meeting of referents of the Latin-American dentistry here organized by the Asociación Odontológica Argentina (AOA), said that the main problem for the implementation of such policies is the gap at different levels between health and oral health.

“If oral health is in fact health, must be compulsory to be accessible”, declared, adding that this is a principle of paramount importance. “Universal access is the primary strategic element to make oral health a component of health” at the political level.

A fact that says a lot about how the country was is that 75% of the Brazilian population over 65 was edentulous in 2002.

This situation improved radically through the implementation of two oral health policy initiatives within the programme Brazil Semplice (smiling Brazil): oral health teams and centres of dental specialties.

While in 2002 there were 4,261 buccal health teams, 2011 Dr. Pucca had achieved this figure reached 21,083, an increase of 400%. These teams are composed of surgeons, technicians and auxiliaries in oral health.

In less than a decade, 87% of the 5,470 Brazilian municipalities has a team of oral health that are part of an initiative called the family health. These teams are occupied to a number of families in a geographical area should be aware of.

A second front of this national health policy, more ambitious still, was the implementation of centres of average complexity, in which “refers to the users of the system side only of (their) health to a care center”. Pucca says that in 2007 specializing in periodontics, Endodontics, special patients, surgery treatment centers were opened for minors and Stomatology.

Spectacular results

“Today we have 870 specialty centers in operation”, distributed all over the country. These centers have become to turn and a source of employment for oral health professionals.

Investing in health carried out by the Brazilian Government has been substantial, but the results are truly spectacular and not only compensate for they exceed by far the inverted.

Pucca said for example that from 2003 to 2010 the number of dentists working in the its grew by 49%, from 40,000 to 80,000, absorbing a large amount of “excess” of professionals in Brazil oral health as well. “This means that currently in Brazil over 30% of dentists working for the SUS, and the consequent increase of armchairs has allowed access to the attention to social classes who previously did not have it”.

Figures speak for themselves: between 2003 and 2008, the national oral health policy gave access to care “to 18 million Brazilians, individuals who had never before gone to the dentist”, according to Pucca. In turn, this has caused a great impact “on the growth of families who have income of two minimum wages (monthly $500)”.

In a nutshell, access to health care has made grow in a wide social class. So much so that as a result Brazil is considering modifying the curricula of study in dentistry because now the country needs specialists in dentistry that dominate the general clinic, know pulbica health plan, and are trained in biology, said Pucca.

The Brazilian Government also has a policy to avoid excessive concentration of dental care in large towns such as Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis in order to provide care in geographic areas that need it.

In summary, Dr. Pucca has implemented a system that is resolving big problems in a country that boasts more than 200,000 dental care: give free access to oral health to a large percentage of the population, incorporating a large number of professionals to put useful governmental and train others in public health, and redeploy human resources in a country whose Governments have historically been centralist.

CERMI is the organization representing people with disabilities in Spain.

CERMI and Foundation ONCE organized a day in Madrid on the political participation of people with disabilities.

On the day have been several public officials with disabilities, as the councilman Angel Bachelor, first policy with syndrome of down in Spain.

Angela has said that it shows that the people with disabilities have the same rights that therest.

Education and training are essential to get people with disabilities to occupy political posts.

This has been one of the main conclusions of the day.

Political representatives with disabilities have chosen Thursday by influencing access to education and training in the sector to obtain their access to politics and that more people with disabilities are present in the political parties and electoral candidates.

Expressed it during the day ‘ expanding political representation – access codes. More people with disabilities in the political groups and election candidates ‘, organized by the Spanish Committee of representatives of people with disabilities (CERMI) at the headquarters of Fundación ONCE, and which has retransmitted over the Internet.

During the round table ‘Experiences of people with disabilities with political responsibilities’, the Deputy of the people’s Party and first Deputy in Spain in a wheelchair, Francisco Vañó, has stressed that “much remains to be done”, but it has put in value the spectacular change in disability in the last 40 years. “We have passed the disability seen as a curse to the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities, which recognizes people with disabilities as people with rights,” he stressed.

Thus, according to Disability, it has influenced that “any person with a disability can participate in many areas and also in policy” and this participation, has said, helps to normalize the disability and to consider people with disabilities equal.

Ángela Bachiller, first Councillor with syndrome of Down in Spain has ensured that cases like his are important “to make visible that persons with disabilities have the same rights as the rest”.

In addition, it highlighted that its objective is to “strive to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities in all areas of society, especially in employment and education because”we are all equal and deserve an opportunity to demonstrate that we are able”.

For his part, Cristina Chamorro, UPyD the Madrid City Council Councillor has stressed that one of the factors that have more influence on the exclusion of persons with disabilities is education and training, which “can be an obstacle to access to positions of political responsibility”.

From their point of view, it is important that political representatives have a good academic background and technical qualifications, but “the most important thing in politics are the values and the sense of duty”, i.e. the “human qualities, accept things as they come and deal with them”.

In his opinion, “the constancy, perseverance and empathy” are fundamental qualities in politics, and has pointed out, ‘by her life experience, persons with disability have many of these qualities”.

Also, Carmen Sánchez Carazo, Secretary of social policies of PSM-PSOE has put in value the presence of people with disabilities in positions of political responsibility “they know disability because they suffer it”.

Also has asserted that “much progress” disability although it has pointed out, “is a lot to do and lots of fight ahead” in areas such as education and training and has committed, among other things, to consolidate some of the achievements such as the law of promotion of Personal autonomy and care for people in a situation of dependence.

In this line, Josep María Llop, Advisor to the Department of Social Welfare and care to the people of the Diputació de Barcelona, has assured that “we are at a point where persons with disabilities must have self-esteem and bet on the formation in a time of crisis of the welfare State”.

As well, opted for “adopt patterns of conduct aimed at less dependence and more ability to lobby for public administrations” and because resources”not get subsidies but are looking for synergies with economic operators to obtain a mutually beneficial”.

During the day, was held also the open table ‘ vocation or training?: political militancy of people with disabilities ‘, in which Julio Sánchez Fierro, a lawyer with extensive political experience, has ensured that “integration is not enough, but is it required the active participation in politics, and this is important preparation and training” and insisted that “competition in the world of politics is very important and the self-worth we must prove it”. In this line, said that “the policy tries to transform reality and improve it and therefore must be managed well but also generate new proposals and that these are achievable”.

During the closing ceremony, the director-general’s policy of support to the disability of the Ministry of health, social services and equality, Ignacio Tremiño, said that persons with disabilities “have to have positions of responsibility by their worth, not their disability”.

El 55 por ciento de los catalanes votaría por la independencia, según un sondeo de la Generalitat

“The political secession is just one example of the more general phenomenon of union and separation, the creation and dissolution of relationships with others. “It is the most ancient, haunting, deep and, at the same time, more necessary human drama”. With this general reflection, Professor of philosophy of the University of Yale Allen Buchanan sealed his classical work “Secession” (1991), reissued recently in Spanish in the wake of the secessionist effervescence in Catalonia, with a foreword ad hoc. In it, Buchanan poses a “moral framework for the study of secession” from an exhaustive analysis of the arguments for and against the same.

One of the most common justifications for secession is the right of self-determination of peoples, interpreted from a nationalist point of view: each “people” have the right to their own State. Also, says Buchanan, he is one of the “less compelling” justifications. Leaving aside the instability it would cause a repeated political fragmentation, the biggest objection the philosopher Ernest Gellner made explaining that the number of potential Nations on our planet is “much, much greater than the possible viable States”.Therefore, concludes, “not all nationalisms can be satisfied, at least not at the same time. The satisfaction of some means the frustration of others.”

On the other hand, Buchanan recalls, “we must avoid falling into the fallacy that statement a people’s right to self-determination implies that he is entitled to carry out secession”. Self-determination can be achieved through countless different political arrangements, of which independence would only be the most extreme. For Buchanan, “the moral of the principle of self-determination attraction depends on precisely its inaccuracy.” When using a label kind by way of dissimilar options coalescer, the concrete option that is pursued – in the case of Catalonia, the Divorce in Arizona, AZ – and one saves the task of justifying it is camouflaged. More reason to say the same thing about the “right to decide”, a concept even more vague, and therefore more susceptible to manipulation.

Other routes by which intends to justify secession is the people: any group constituting a majority in any part of a State has the right to the secession provided that it can perform the basic functions of legitimate Governments.Despite secessionist appeals to respect for democracy, “the correct notion of democracy – says Buchanan – is not that of the pure and simple Government of most (…), but more well the constitutional democracy, which includes (…)”constitutional provisions designed to guarantee that the will of the majority does not break democracy itself.”

Then Buchanan says three “democratic” fundamental objections to plebiscite the secession argument: first, admit it would be tantamount to giving a minority within the State a right of veto de facto democratic decisions that are not to your liking, before which could always threaten to secede.Second, the argument is inconsistent with the reasonable expectation of stability in terms of the limits of the State and belonging to the political community necessary to run any democracy. And third, the people theory ignores completely the key issue of territorial legitimacy. Without it, the secession would be a misappropriation of a territory that belongs to all the citizens of the State (and their descendants).

In what refers to specific arguments in favor of secession, probably the most commonly used in Catalonia is economic: the complaint by the fiscal deficit perceived by some sectors as excessive, expressed sometimes in a crude manner with the “Spain steals from US”. For Buchanan, would only be justified secession when there is what he calls “discriminatory redistribution”: fiscal plans or economic programs that “systematically act to the detriment of some groups and for the benefit of others of morally arbitrary”. It seems clear that the territorial solidarity – beyond what concrete contribution be translated – has a moral foundation and constitutional solid, so it not be described as “arbitrary”. Buchanan says: “unless we reject the idea of the welfare State, we must accept the redistribution, and expect that some regions contribute more than they receive.”

Buchanan acknowledges other arguments which would justify the secession and that do not occur in Catalonia, such as large scale human rights violations and the preservation of a culture on the brink of extinction, to conclude that there is a “moral right to secession”, although “highly qualified”, that is, only in very specific circumstances. For Buchanan, the most convincing argument in favor of Catalunya right to secession “can be claimed on the basis that Spain has not shown good faith in responding to demands for greater autonomy intrastate”. In my opinion, since 1978, it is not true that Spain has not shown good faith, but in any case there is no doubt that the ruling of the Constitutional Court on the Statute was a jug of cold water to the hopes of many Catalans find a satisfactory level of autonomy within Spain, increasing significantly the attractiveness of independence.

At this point, he says Buchanan that “if Spain is not prepared to actually commit to a renegotiation of the powers of self-government for Catalonia within the heart of the State, this will increase the arguments in favour of a right to non-consensual secession”. In short, says the author, “in the case of Catalonia a commitment right with democracy and the rule of law would entail the provision to renegotiate the autonomy”. To this end, an appropriate level of mutual trust is essential: Spain should provide assurances that the agreement reached will fit into the doctrine of Constitutional Court and Catalunya should engage with the territorial solidarity and the correct operation of the Spanish State. In any case, the conclusion is clear: we need to talk.

The employer sees low estimates of the Labour Government and shuffles the possibility of creating 400,000 jobs in the next four year only in the community of Madrid. To do so, aware that moves into election year, the new flat of CEIM will present soon a plan with specific measures to the whole of the political spectrum.

“You have to loosen the labour market so as in Spain fear to lose to hire,” he explains to El Economista Juan Pablo Lázaro, President of Madrid businessmen. The Vice President of the CEOE formula aims to go beyond the traditional demands of entrepreneurs as the reduction of labour costs.

“It is time that we seek another form of financing that are not social contributions”, said Francisco Aranda, responsible for Labour Affairs of CEIM. In the chapter on taxation, in addition, the employer affects the need to lower taxes and, above all, to pave the way to new entrepreneurs. “Cannot be a person who runs out to pay the same share start to another that already carries a high turnover on the road”, says Aranda.

Cross-sectional plan

The plan that the employer insists be called cross for their ability to improve the life of small and large companies acts also on the economic and labour. In this sense, CEIM is necessary to normalize the geographical or functional mobility. “If we do not undertake a change in this regard, in times of crisis we will return to the dismissal as only way to square accounts”.

However, if something he wanted to also influence the employer is in the need to expand the training of the employed and unemployed. In this sense, businessmen estimate that for each year of studies inverted, productivity increases between 2.3% and 3.1%.

This road would also be, in the opinion of responsible for labour issues, a good destination for the more than 2.5 million  jobs near me that are hiring lost during the crisis in the construction. “If we are not a good part of this mass labour, will be incontratables,” affects Aranda. On the construction, however, Juan Pablo Lázaro is more prudent. “No demonizing this sector.” Thus, calculates that the prudent weight of this sector in the gross domestic product (GDP) would have to almost 15%.

The other great pillar that entrepreneurs would attack is which baptized as economical where they include the need to implement in Spain “a real market unit as well as reduce the bureaucracy”. Remember as well that, despite having climbed some jobs, the economy still ranks a rather under – 33 among the 189 countries taking part – in the world Doing Business 2015.

One of the gaps that also criticize are barriers to the outsourcing of the enterprises. In order to solve it, the plan proposes that the embassies would become real instruments that help the private sector. On the other hand, they also warn Spain premia to medium-sized enterprises, because “the leap to become big passes a Bill too high”, says Aranda.

Finally, the package also consists of specific sectoral actions. In particular, the programme proposes interventions in trade, tourism, industry and services.

For the new President of CEIM, Juan Pablo Lázaro, is the time to help the private sector. “We must remember that even if the economy improves, there are only 40% of the entrepreneurs who manage to close with benefits”, he concludes.


Parent representatives have become alarmed by circular schoolchildren Educational Zone where children ask students to write letters or make drawings against US President Barack Obama to demand repeal the decree against Venezuela’s best baby carriers for newborns.

Children were not only asked to write letters, but also they have used to sign sanctions against Venezuelan officials.


Through Twitter, have released an image in which an alleged letter made ​​by a student of the Third Degree, which asked for affordable baby carriers from USA and gives thanks to Obama reads “no permit who steal or kill, you get away with it” .  .

The letter is rolling on social networks, creating user feedback disapprove where children are forced to write this kind of thing and only with that seek to divert attention from the real problems of the country. However, until now it has not verified the accuracy of the writing.

In the Fine Arts Exhibition participated Items 561, distributed as follows: 374 in the “painting section”; 81 of which were admitted after opening; 36 jobs in the “departments of architecture”, mostly drawing boards amounted to not make an entire project except, perhaps, the two designs baptistery and a fountain, with 17 exhibitors in total; 9 works in “section woodcut”, an extremely low number gives us an idea of the experience of Newsprint illustrated failed to project outside the company; 9 papers in the “embroidery section”; 13 in the “sculpture section” 8 exhibitor, with the exception of a bronze and marble, rejected his work in such despicable materials with clay, plaster and cardboard; 13 on “section of ornamentation”; 82 in the “photography section” with exhibitors who sent their copies in various materials like silk, glass and paper; finally 25 papers in the “music section” consisting scores and a “mechanical device to learn   music tones “of domestic manufacture. The exhibitors were 41 males and 66 females and although the catalog is not consistent, because sometimes works fine for technical and other for his subject, two modes may know that in the painting section was at least 21 copies of teachers, 91 landscapes, portraits 64, 18 Living Room Paint Ideas, 76 vases and still lifes, genre paintings 21 and a miscellany which included three “decorated with paint walnut bedside”, treatment with 61 crystal, “a” painting on   a “work with butterflies,” etc. As the regulations did not stipulate a limit to the number of works by artist some of them came to fill the galleries with real retrospective of his works. Epifanio Garay, ei busiest time painter, sent 47, and Ricardo Urbina Moros 25. Other, less abundant because just beginning or did not have a large clientele were: Ricardo Alvarez Borrero 9 works, Ricardo Ace: Bernal vedo 8, Eugenio Zerda 7, Jesús María Zamora 5, Roberto Páramo 5, Francisco Antonio Cano with 5 and Eugenio Peña with 4. (1) These names were the group most prestigious and well-known artists of the time.

Alongside these numerical data is noteworthy that the press referred to the event so profusely that news, editorials, notes, letters and critical comments reached the hundred, a figure that has hardly reached any room. Such a profusion of writings found in one of the most interesting documents of Colombian art, booklet of 54 pages Jacinto Albarracín, entitled Artists and critics, the first printed published in Colombia who became sole topic of their pages the contemporary art activity the author. Its same publication, originated in the need to establish you a final balance the critical avalanche broke away on the sample, is an indication of how important it was the political struggle that broke out about national artistic expression.

Three weeks after the exhibition opened, El Heraldo do a couple of references to some internal arrangements made ​​by the organizers and the free flow affecting the public. In one of them he said: “By living naked should not be prohibited entry, but simply tell what specialty of that site, to refrain from entering those fit to have ” (2) . Clearly, this complaint, a prudish atmosphere and narrow criteria were operational modalities created by the ruling class of the time, maximum defender of thought of Regeneration, which would then grant that was Instituting such thoughts when half century earlier, in the lounge 1848, and in a closed society, there had been some nudes painted by Petra González Blandina and sisters, without access to their works be limited or such paintings were considered immodest, nor a subject whose appreciation or execution should be interested forbidden to women (3) . As for the other note of El Heraldo, with it we are at the great political conflict, which in a very direct way unexpectedly burst into the room. He said: “Loe armed police rifle are bad effect on the Sanctuary of art. It would be best if they were unarmed, notwithstanding the state of war ” (4) .It could be said that officers had been deployed to ensure the integrity of works of art on which such verbal battle, it was reasonable to fear any aggression against Rafael Núñez regenerator effigies of President Sanclemente and former President Carlos Holguin broke.

The author of these effigies was Epifanio Garay, an artist who can identify fully with the Regeneration, on whom the public’s attention focused critical both for the high quality of his works in our environment so lofty as the character involved. Of the 47 works on a sample Garay was a copy of Espagnoletto, another was a landscape, 3 were studies, 3 were free compositions, 3 corresponded to religious subjects and 36 were portraits. An d the first reviews in the press, signed with the pseudonym of Lilia and written especially p Chronicle, referring to Garay said: “Only talk about the clou of his works: the portrait of former painfully slow Dr. Sanclemente, a masterpiece by the likeness, by severe natural composition, in harmony with the venerable old man “. immediately added “We say bluntly that no other among the exhibits -the de Garay inclusives that as it has not merited reproach some critics. Everything in this table reveals thorough study of the work before being rushed; also reveals arrested psychological analysis of model ” (5) . Politically this was rather lukewarm assessment of the effigy who was then the president of Colombia, especially when compared with the opinion of the rest of the liberal press. But do not forget, The Chronicle was equally warm to Regeneration.Hence the outside immediate reply: with CD initials, a liberal reader sent a few letters, the first of which raised the outset that the maximum portraiture work of the exhibition was not signed by Garay but was the “José Second Peña “of Ricardo Acevedo Bernal calling it work teacher (6) . Garay of the onslaught against government opponents Thus began, so that his work meant as propaganda system, an onslaught of various writers who always coincide, as if they had an agreement, arguing that Acevedo Bernal was the most notable living artist.

A few lines later CD’s letter stated his disagreement with the views of Lilia, and appropriated without many veils the political heart of the matter: “Straight is not seen long ago the current president of Colombia to find similarity between the face and the venerable octogenarian plethoric and red knight portrait, which looks more like a drinker Bayana an elderly respectable, burdened by the weight of many years of austere, exemplary and simple “life. It must be recognized that speaks up in the attacks and that at a time when the press surveillance exercised, the correspondent knew refine harsh criticism with phrases gallant apparent exaltation of the personality of the president. But not ceased to be sharp to ask: “And the eye jumped, stationary and fixed glass seems, have any resemblance to the flickering look original? And that hard body, which looks like wood, the body of one of the oldest men de Colombia did faithfully copied? What can be founded the saying that before undertaking the work have a thorough psychological analysis model? What state of mind reveals that figure, with wooden body, which serves to support a face of exaggerated colorful, animated by a glassy eye without expression? “. The commentator, in defining Sanclemente as a character from “hesitant look” and as “one of the oldest men in Colombia”, suggested in passing that was a ruler worn with age and, therefore, incapable represented by Garay of a fake cleverly create you an image that did not correspond with reality mode. In response to several questions, the anonymous correspondent was blunt as to leave no doubt of their real contempt for the work under the magnifying glass: “To me and many people heard about the matter, says nothing, absolutely nothing” . However, not all critics agreed with the correspondent of The Chronicle at its conclusion. Others spoke volumes read this portrait and the other of the illustrious political leaders of Regeneration. Comment by El Heraldo is significant in that it did not appear as a column either but as the editorial of day to express in an aside, “Epifanio Garay shows his best portraits. There are the Dr. Nunez and D. Ricardo Carrasquilla. How full of truth and expression are those two effigies of great political and entertaining writer. The cryptic phrase is being developed on the forehead of the thinker, and the festive song seems to come to the lips of the poet epigrammatic ” (7) . Whether it was Sanclemente or Rafael Núñez, was not the individuality of these   leaders but Regeneration and what she meant in all its aspects, which was always in doubt.

The first reaction of Garay, according to a correspondent for the conservative newspaper The National Post, seems like more of euphoria. But we must see where the witness is not an advanced manufacturing in order to present the painter as invulnerable to his critics. In the document it is stated: “We were present when the artist Garay read a letter-criticism that put his portrait on the floor of His Excellency Mr. Sanclemente. Far from upset, only encouraged the artist as he read that letter; and finish with visible satisfaction exclaimed: ‘I’m going to school. I will see my work; the only one mereacid honors censorship. These accusations are not expecting praise. I would have hurt much indifference. Blessed beGod ” (8) .

Garay’s comments, however, were not to be always surrounded by details as laughing. His liberal critics persist in their task of prefixing Acevedo Bernal while pointing insistently defects identified with a painting Regeneration. Max Grillo, in his first note on the hall, calling attention to the Levite woman emphasizing “the bad effect of the figure of the man before him naked.” Immediately speak it to “false or no expression portrait of Mr. Sanclemente, or the colorful imagination of Mr. Pardo, or that scope to guess the lack of model and plenty of photography in others ” (9) . Meanwhile, Ruben J. Mosquera say suspiciously of the Levite woman was a “theme jugosamente exploited in the hall Paris by M. Hener, who won the Medal of Honor in 1898″, criticizing later this work of Garay “For the woman studio has earned its author a forbidden appeal to loyal corrtpositor, which is the stable printing photography, subject to the procedure of the grid”. Coinciding with Grillo, Mosquera rejected the use of photography. However, neither the Sanclemente turned out to your liking, “because truly the colors are exaggerated for an octogenarian man who was born and always lived in hot weather, natural exhausting of red blood cells. The look can not be stronger, especially the eye that best appreciated and whose ostensible fixity and challenging making appearances glass ” (10) .

At this point, Garay lost his temper. The charge of Mosquera in the sense that it had copied the nude woman Levite , damaged his reputation and called into question its well earned reputation of great cartoonist who did not need to resort to such a procedure, had by illegitimate. His answer, and without the humor found in his first reaction was swift. It consisted of a letter to the editor of The Uncle John in saying, “I will not deal with such criticism as not’ll take care of any leading all initial false signature or pseudonym, or those that are signed by persons who, although when they were respectable social representation, are not recognized competence in the field “. Garay, counterattacking, was so-terrible as his critics. Mosquera was not only a critical well structured but had training as a painter, a profession that ultimately changed the lyrics and, in any case, in the eyes of the time, it was eligible for an exceptional place to discuss the issue mode. To refute the claim that relied on photography, Garay accompanied his letter signed by eight other witnesses to the execution of the Levite woman, including painters Eugene Zerda and Francisco Torres Medina, Silvano Cuéllar sculptor and a citizen He wrote: “I declare, and with an oath if need be, the following: I am an employee of the School of Fine Arts, by appointment in me did the minister of Public Instruction, and as such soil into the studio of Mr. Garay without advertise. There I’ve been coming all the time, since he began his painting “; and concluded by stating, to clarify everything, “one day, when Mr. Garay was over the figure of the woman, vi inserting or removing a camera studio and until today I have known that was to give a copy to Mr. Garay had offered the model, the subject of your picture. ” This letter, published alongside the other occupying half a page of the newspaper, the signing Antonio Cortés (11) .

But Max Grillo wrote a second note and with it went the attacks. Although less aggressive than their previous and other liberal critics began, “Ricardo Acevedo Bernal appears triumphant. His victory is indisputable. ” And then scoring de Garay “in his later works revealed decadence ” (12) . Garay naturally charged again despite having promised not to occupy more of these issues. But the artist, by now, should be in tablet as a member of the organizer of the contest, he fell on suspicion of wanting to be favored with the jury would give the awards and whose choice played the most important role. The minutes of the meeting show that the formation of the jury became an arduous and difficult operation.Officially appointed, elected began to resign the appointment One after other, beginning with the Father Páramo (13) and following the Spanish painter Enrique Recio (14) , then the painter Rosa Ponce de Portocarrero and Italian sculptor César Sighinolfi, who were replaced at the same meeting of the board by Andres Santamaria y León Vilaveces (15) , the first of which also resigned.

The situation was chaotic and took Chronicle went on to suggest that the jury was tested by sending a selection of works to Paris to the French experts will determine which of them was really the best. And he argued: “The decision of the jury bogotano not deny that it is extremely competent; but as its members will not be dispensed at all, rendering its judgment, certain criteria of sympathy or antipathy towards our artists, always gives more security failure foreigners, completely unconcerned – and free from these disturbing elements of judgment ” (16) . Days after the Autonomista would welcome such a request, in an exceptional attitude. given the tensions that existed between the two publications (17) . In the bottom line you can guess the suggestion that such was the inability of the government, that even in matters of art could ensure fair ruling. The setbacks with juries delayed the award and thinned the classroom environment until it reached a critical point. A valuable testimony to res respect is the anonymous CD, which explains in a letter to The Chronicle that “With looks to take some data to complete my magazines that have sent so respectable newspaper of you, yesterday I went to the hall of the Exhibition Fine Arts and had the strangest and most unpleasant surprise at the foot of a multitude of paintings I read this sign:. Out of competition, and someone said, it seems that Mr. Recio has withdrawn from the examining board, and his disciples, for that reason, resolved not to allow their works to enter thecontest ” (18) . The author deplores this attitude and welcomed, if the jury could not fail, then the idea of sending to Paris the best works.

Attacked by critics and challenged for being the organizer and participant time and Garay responded indignantly Grillo second criticism: “It seems that my silence to repeated criticism (I do not believe that the same author) in different newspapers are published in order to exalt some artists and depressing to another, I’ve always been, more and more exalted bile those who attack me. No prohibited weapon has not been presented against me; However, I will keep silent in order to show the respect due me gentlemen composing the examining board; their integrity is unquestionable, and exercising with written influences on his judgment, is unusual and claim ridiculous ” (19) . Nervousness de Garay could not be greater: intended silent contempt, when in fact kept respond to critics with his letters. But at the same time was extremely lucid as critics had guessed that actually chased influence the award and thus prevent or Sanclemente Núñez winners will result in effigy. The note of the Autonomista, accepting the idea Chronicle send works to Paris, that pressure is betrayed and was intended to invalidate any decision different from that proposed by the liberal, pro-Acevedo Bernal, when it stated: “Since the public has issued its rulings on the tables in the -Exposition Nacional ” (20) , an attitude that also in contranos in Grillo saying “Ricardo Acevedo Berrial appears triumphant” and “victory is indisputable” already cited in note. Clearly it was not the public but liberal critics, who had issued that ruling.







1 See Catalog of the National Exhibition of Fine Arts and Music in 1899 arranged by Peter A. Quijano, typography Messenger, Bogotá, 1899. (Return 1)

2 “Notes on the Exhibition” in El Heraldo, no. 847, Bogotá, September 5, 1899.  (Back 2)

3 J. MIGUEL FIGUEROA and J. CELESTINO FIGUEROA, “Rate of works” in The Vta, no. 533, Bogota, August 2, 1848. The end of the century pacatería well illustrated Pedro Carlos Manrique, who wrote purpose of the prize awarded in Paris to his excondiscípulo Frenchman Paul Chabas, as follows: “We looked at our cari several sketches as a precious I remember we retain our friend and including preliminary studies of the nude he made ​​his first painting p (…).Unfortunately, those drawings are not published in this city “(PCM,” The award of the Paris Salon ” Pictorial, no. 15, Bogotá, August 22, 1899).  (Back 3)

4 “Notes on the Exhibition” in El Heraldo, ibid.  (return 4)

5 LILIA, “National Exhibition at the School of Fine Arts” in The Chronicle, no. 632, Bogota, August 17, 1899.  (back in May)

6 CD., “Portraits and Landscapes”, in The Chronicle, no. 634, Bogota, August 18, 1899.  (Back 6)

7 “Fine Arts” in El Heraldo, no. 842, Bogota, August 24, 1899. (return 7)

8 CV, “Criticism and artist” in El Correo Nacional, no. 2552, Bogotá, August 23, 1899. (back 8)

9 Max [Max CRICKET], “The Statement”, in The Journal, no. 5, Bogotá, August 24, 1899. (back 9)

10 J. Reuben MOSQUERA, “Fine Arts” in El Tio Juan, no. 106, Bogota, September 10, 1899. ( return 10)

11 “personal Section – Rectification” in El Tio Juan, no. 108, Bogotá, September 21, 1890.  (Back 11)

12 M [Max CRICKET]. “Impressions” in The Autonomista, no. 292, Bogota, September 27, 1899.
(back 12)

13 “National Exhibition – Act Number 15 July 25″, Official Journal , no. 11,067, Bogotá, August 19, 1899.  (Back 13)

14 “National Exhibition – September 21 Act Number 5″, in The National Unity, no. 120, Bogotá, October 5, 1899.  ( return 14)

15 “National Exhibition – Act Number 22 September 13″ in The National Unity, no. 129, Bogota, October 16, 1899.  (Back 15)

16 “Art and government” in The Chronicle, no. 647, Bogota, September 3, 1899.  (Back 16)

17 “For the art” in THE Autonomista, no. 279, Bogotá, September 12, 1899.  (back 17)

18 CD, “National Exhibition” in The Chronicle, no. 656, Bogota, September 14, 1899.  (Back 18)

19 Epifanio Garay, “On Painting” on E! Autonomista, no. 294 Bogotá, September 29, 1899.  (Back 19)

20 “For the art” in The Autonomista, Ibid.  (return 20)

Dear Siegfried:

Who would have thought that among all staff-‘d be you who would give a valuable contribution to the week of transparency we are currently celebrating with conferences, debates, forums? A little involuntary, I guess, but no matter: it is exactly what we needed.

In this way, mind you, I can present as good news and a sign of hope what others lament as another step on the road to becoming a “failed state”. For me, who have grabbed you with his hands in the dough, doing real estate business and buy bali villa taking advantage of your position as president of a powerful state organ, is the best thing that could happen.

The case Siegfried Reyes is the sign that we have a civil society, means of communication and a strong public opinion, critical and independent enough to fulfill their role of citizen oversight. And if you still driving your case well, also the democratic institutions of the State can show that they are not ornamental but really exert control over officials and their performance in the management of power and funds. You have to let the prosecution, the Court of Auditors, the Court of Government Ethics, Institute of Access to Public Information, Zoek voor een Makelaar Leiden hier and Probity Section of the Supreme Court do their jobs, investigate the mixing of politics and business in which you are involved and fair and take the necessary measures.

An institution already failed: Transparency Secretariat of the Presidency of the Republic. Not only did not investigate anything, but immediately came to your defense. Well, but is an institution of the executive, also highly ideological. Realistically, you could not expect anything else from an institution that is dedicated to generating little transparency, but rather propaganda. Not really an independent control instance.

But provided no means to stop intimidating and that citizens continue to require the strict application of the law, constitutional institutions above mentioned control will act like it belongs: with autonomy, law-abiding, and unafraid of proceeding against whom.

This is new in our country. And it is very good news. Thank you for your contribution to this real change, albeit unintentional.

The fact that you, acting as President of the Assembly, comprás to IPSFA the Villa Dueñas at a great price (say $ 4.8 million), at first glance it may seem unsupicious. This money helps a social welfare institution for military and ex-military who is in an untenable financial situation. Not because they have mismanaged the military, but simply because today there are few military assets listed and many who need to receive pensions. It is a logical effect of the drastic reduction of the Armed Forces.

The matter becomes suspicious when you, this time with hat real estate entrepreneur, then receive a generous discount when using a company called Terrain shopping IPSFA lots in New Cuscatlan. As all this happened with little transparency, obviously there are those who think that the discount is the commission for the sale of the Villa Owners.

It is precisely for this reason (and because nobody has any idea how financiaste estate transactions) not to allow senior officials, especially when handling public funds and sign agreements with companies, on par with their own businesses. Much less when these personal business are related to the covenants as public servants sign or influence.

Some interpret this scandal, in which you are involved, to show that corruption is unstoppable. The opposite is true: check that with sufficient autonomy the media, the public and oversight institutions can detect, expose and curb corruption. And this, as I said, is an excellent sign.

Thanks for having given as an example. The party and the president will drop you like a hot potato, because they can not swim against the current of transparency.

Agarrá embassy before withdraw your offer … Goodbye, Paolo Lüers

British reporter Clive Goodman, convicted of having intercepted voicemails warned four years ago that illegal wiretapping was common in the tabloid News of the World and senior journalists adopted the practice, according to a letter published Tuesday by British lawmakers.

Goodman says in the letter, addressed to the director of human resources of the parent company of the Sunday newspaper, that wiretapping was done with “full knowledge and support” of the heads of the tabloid.

This statement is particularly damning because both News of the World and News International, parent of the tabloid, have long insisted that Goodman, who was fired, convicted and jailed for his role in the scandal was the only reporter involved in the interception of voice messages.

Goodman’s letter, addressed to Daniel Cloke and dated March 2, 2007, directly contradicts what sustained by the newspaper.

Goodman said he was acting with the backing of senior journalists, other employees of News of the World were also wiretapping and that “this practice was widely discussed during the daily editorial conference until the director alluded explicitly prohibited to it. “

The names of those involved have been labeled on the chart. The Guardian newspaper, which was the first to publish the letter, said it did the police, who are investigating the illegal acts of the newspaper.

The letter is part of a group of documents published by the Committee for Culture, Media and Sport of the lower house of Parliament.

Prior to publication, committee members said they probably would cite back to James Murdoch, the head of the European division of his father’s media empire, Rupert Murdoch, to answer questions. James Murdoch told parliament last month that he knew of phone spying using Flexispy at the newspaper.

His testimony was contradicted two days later by former editor of News of the World, Colin Myler and former company lawyer, Tom Crone.

Members of the Committee for Culture, Media and Sport said they have been unable to reconcile the contradictions between those statements. The committee chairman John Whittingdale said the panel “may want to ask more questions to James Murdoch.”

He said Myler and Crone will give evidence to lawmakers next month. The committee member Tom Watson said “it is likely to call back to Murdoch”.

“There seems to be some doubt as to whether James Murdoch misled the committee,” Watson said. “We have not reached a conclusion about that.”

Whittingdale said there are no plans to quote back to Rupert Murdoch, who gave evidence before the committee with his son on July 19.

Police are investigating allegations that News of the World illegally listened to messages of mobile phones and bribing the police in exchange for information about celebrities, politicians and crime victims.

News International said Tuesday he is “fully cooperating” with the police investigation.

“We recognize the seriousness of the reported to the police and Parliament materials and are committed to working constructively and openly with all the relevant authorities,” the company said in a statement Tuesday.

News Corp. Rupert Murdoch closed the newspaper last 168 years.

“Instant immobilized as a camera that had caught something that never reach the words to say.” Clarice Lispector

Nothing more relevant these weeks that the registration of candidates, the primaries and in the immediate future the start of the campaign for the election of governor of Mexico for the period 2011-2017. The different tools to use on stage political, are innumerable, the main actor, “the speech” will be present at all stages and facets, from spoken discourse, radio, television spots and very inclusive social networks; but certainly, which has positioned itself as a lethal tool in this environment is If we define a concept of using photography as part of the political discourse we find that made ​​the late nineteenth century begins to form as an innovative means technician for imaging and as mechanical solution to reproduce reality.Such is its power and efficiency to communicate that from then until now the politicians have in mind as an element in their campaigns because “in today’s society consumer, the public is accustomed to political campaigns that do not debate ideas, but images. parties work harder to present a strong candidate that appeals to voters with his charisma, which broadcast their programs of government “(María Antonia Paz1Profesora . Head of Department of History of Social Communication at the Complutense University of Madrid) To illustrate this we propose to analyze the following examples:. a national and an international event For our country the photograph made ​​headlines this week was the meeting of the PRI, wherein the photographic discourse itself made ​​between different lines opinions; rescuing the PRI union; dialogue to define the possible PRI candidate for the presidential elections of 2012, or, show society a stronger and stronger party, as the very slogan of this year, in order assertions many meanings more.

Internationally, the US president stole all the limelight thanks to the photograph of him with his team overseeing the actions that lead to the capture and death of Osama Ben Laden, results: increase his popularity by nine per cent after the announcement of the death of the principal enemy of his country and the movement of the graphic image that allude that was leaked by the same president, the ultimate goal to continue on the road to re-election.
The above examples may reflect us a general representation agreed (meetings, rallies, supporters, meetings) also show that photography is able to refine these stereotypes, singling leaders and impacting more than the speeches themselves offered by political actors.

I invite you in my next installment let’s review the political photography in our country in 1865; and its projection in Western Europe during the Second World War, and review its application in the state environment, how they will use mexiquense candidates for governor. * Founding Partner of Strategic Communication RGPROFESIONAL Member of DirComMX, Global Strategic Community

Dear Students:

Following the last election for governor of Guerrero, held last Sunday, I decided to write to you my weekly letter, to help understand how mistakes are in an election.

The first axiom in this profession is:

A good advertising campaign does not help win an election.

Two poor seasons, as it was in this case, help the less bad.

But what is definite is that a bad campaign (like Añorve) insurance helps to lose the election.

….. And Añorve the lost by 15 points ….. ……

Another axiom:

A bad candidate does not win the election, as the undecided voters now vote for the person … not the party …

And every day the hard vote is less hard. The electorate also worth mothers coalitions …

As I said before, much care about the candidate and his proposals.


The election is won first with the territorial movement, not advertising.


The candidate’s speech is very important, If the candidate says idiocy, who does not reach the electorate, then the electorate has no reason why vote for him.

Very important:

The team candidate must have experience in marketing advisors.

If you do not, sure he will choose evil.

…. As was the case Añorve ….

Surveys and seo consulting service are not safe.

Much depends on who does and especially what the questions are.

Do not forget:

The candidate should have a single line of discourse.

If many things says, will have a guiding message and insurance will confuse the electorate.

On the debate:

The debate is not a boxing match.

The debate is the only opportunity for candidates to present their four major proposals, four minutes each.

And, as such, should seize.

And believe it or not … the debate is not very important, as the rating on television is very low.

Actually, the discussion is directed to the red circle and the political press.

Now … what does matter is the postdebate.

Here, you cluck their candidate won.

I never knew why, but the winner of the debate, wins three to five points.

Returning to advertising:

It is advisable to get so many messages in the banners.

Very confusing to voters.

(Añorve did in Acapulco).


After 15 years in this business, I can recommend:

Never be complacent, though their candidate is winning on many points.

You have to jump at beating their opponents.

And on famosasas social networks, they will not be as important in elections this year or next.

The reason is very simple:

The supermajority of the target group that uses not vote …..

It looks easy, but …. it is not ….

Good luck to you all.

The BOE collects bidding for the contract for the supply of catering equipment hire to aircraft 45 Air Force Group, the seven aircraft (two Airbus A310 and five Falcon 900B) intended to transport authorities, mainly the kings and the Prime Minister . In total, spending euros total amount for one year (starting from the formalization) is 133,000 euros. The last time it was tendered this service, in 2013, was for 65,000 euros base budget for 14 months. The problem is that they are are estimated quantities, since the price  invoiced to the company depends on consumption and is made ​​monthly . Thus, we can not compare the actual costs of each annuity .

In fact, in 2012, as  revealed by Interviu , spending executed in catering for six months was more than 128,000 euros . In addition, both contracts include a provision for possible amendments to the contract, subject to ” generations of credit “, which is 147,900 euros in the tender published today and 191,500 in the last year, in addition to the possibility of extensions the duration of the initial contract. All these figures give the total estimated value, 413,900 euros for this year and 321,250 for last year (eye, with a somewhat longer).

The specifications of the contract tendered today include the maximum price that the contractor may charge for certain foods or drinks . Thus the kilo sheep cheese may not cost more than 35 euros; dish suckling Segovia, 20 euros; and melon with ham, 22. On this occasion, the list does not include products that did include last year , as revealed El Mundo, as the ham at 250 euros a kilo maximum price. Nor does it include the price maximum of alcoholic beverages .

The problem is not whether something is expensive or cheap, but it is impossible to know how much is spent. Once again we have to settle for trying to draw conclusions from the estimated figures in contracts like this.

Create a political leaflets requires special attention to the message that comes along. The prospectus should be persuasive and faithfully represent the candidate, the message or subject you are promoting. The drafting and design are key to the success or failure of the brochure. Normally, creating a political leaflets is a team project. Many stakeholders provide input for the drafting, design and focus of the brochure.

Part 1

  1. Meet the campaign team and determines the message of the brochure. Discuss the target audience and the most relevant information.

  2. Review materials from previous campaigns. Stresses the parts of the language that can be used again by the group or candidate, and no. Make notes on how the presentation of the new brochure will differ from the previous one.

  3. Write the material in the brochure. Check the spelling and word choice. Write each sentence in the active voice, and the appropriate tone.

  4. Submit the text to a review by the candidate, campaign manager or others involved in the campaign or publication. Give them a deadline for you to provide comments; be specific about the type of feedback you want.

  5. Make the necessary changes based on the comments. Gently corrects the final copy.Make a third edit text.

    Part 2

  1. Choose the graphic. A political leaflet can include photographs of the candidate, photographs that represent a particular urgency or a graph showing an economic or financial information.

  2. Create a model of the brochure with pencil and paper. Determine the size and design.Make a sketch of text, graphics and location of the title.

  3. Brochure design using a word processing software or a publisher. It is very common that the software has included templates, or you can access them through the website of the company that has developed. Do not use more than two or three sources.

  4. Print the brochure and correct copy. Check that the colors have been printed as you wanted, that the graphic elements are aligned and that the titles and text are the correct size and sources.

5. Distribute the leaflets using services like leaflet distribution London.

In May 2004, the then defense minister, José Bono, wearing only a month in office, traveled to Trabzon (Turkey) , where a year before had crashed Yak-42 . To mark the tenth anniversary of the accident, which meets Sunday morning, Bono has provided COUNTRY content of your daily those days, part of the raw material of the second volume of his memoirs, to be published later this year .

»Tuesday, 05.25.2004. Since Congress Torrejon. Flight to Trabzon (Trebizond) on the official Airbus.Come the military archbishop, the mayor of Zaragoza, Juan Alberto Belloch, and more than 30 journalists.

We moved to the Buyuk hotel in the city of Maçka. Dinner with 160 families of victims of Yakovlev. We intend that no journalists in the room, but look up and see Miguel Gonzalez, HOME, which has been cast. I speak with families and I shudder suffering carrying accumulated for not knowing the truth of what happened in the accident. Emotions, feelings and anger mix. I am struck a woman in the neighborhood of San Pablo, Albacete, who has lost her child and talking with depth and hard. Another mother tells me that his son, Captain, said goodbye to her saying, “Mom, if anything happens to me do not blame the Army, because I’m a volunteer and the army is my life.” I take this confidence to, in my words at the end of dinner, Azaña and ask quote “Peace, mercy and forgiveness” on behalf of the Ministry of Defence. A young girl scolds me. “I’m not ready to forgive or the minister Trillo , or the Jerne [Chief of Staff of the Army, General Luis Alejandre] and do not understand you to conceal them. “ At the end of dinner, a lady from Canary tells me how his son would have been buried in Sewer (Murcia) but she wants to take him to his land. Lots of emotion and a lot of emotional strength. I’m going to sleep with the idea that some families are unwilling to forgive without investigating the facts. I’m not the prosecutor, or the inquisitor but can not help but affect me the tenderness with which I speak this mother: “My son wanted me in a special way, to the way they told me mom I was excited, and you should understand who wants to close his remains. ”

. »Wednesday, 26/05/2004 chains [TV] play the part of my speech in which I said, referring to the 62 soldiers who died in the crash of Yak-42: “They would have wanted to die otherwise , which would not live otherwise is other than the service to Spain “. Therefore the verses are usually recited in the military funeral services will change. It will no longer say “they would not otherwise die” but “did not want to live any other way.” It is a tribute to those who died in the Yakovlev (1) .

I get up at six o’clock and attend Mass that celebrates the military archbishop in the dining room. I asked to read the Epistle of St. Paul. In the rite of peace, I see that I must give it to anyone last night more firmly rejected the pardon for those responsible for the death of his family. I extend my hand and asked, “Not even here at Mass, are you able to forgive?” “I want the truth and not stop until get it,” I answered.When you kiss, internally I take the commitment to seek the truth of what happened with all my strength until the end. Profound and radical change in my position before the accident: seek the truth without corporate contemplations. Glad you have been attending Mass and the Rite of Peace.

We climbed a complicated and difficult road to Mount Pilav, where Yakovlev crashed a year ago today. The summit is covered by a fog that almost impairs vision; a group of children, poorly dressed and with few outerwear has started some wild flowers to give to the families of the victims of the Yak. The authorities and the population of the area is flushed to show affection towards visitors sorry. Castilian banners welcome them. People are sitting in bars and roadside to see transited arrival from Spain to mourn at the site where their loved ones died.

Already in Madrid, called Miguel Barroso [Secretary of State for Communication] to tell me that they have given very positive information about the trip. “The Jerne is much hated by family and maybe have to give that piece,” he adds. Indeed, I must dismiss Alejandre and so I tell the phone to President [José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero]. “One of the reasons for how much they hate the relatives of Yak to Jerne,” he explained, “it is because, on the eighth day of the accident, he wrote a letter to Peter J. [Ramirez, director of the World] to which enclosed a photo of smiling posing aboard a Hercules [Army transport plane] with the following comment: The military did not organize honeymoons Cancun “. Such impudence hurt the families: and no wonder, because one thing is honeymoons and other people put on planes without the slightest safety requirement, despite protests and prior claims.

»Thursday, 05.27.2004. Today publishes COUNTRY I have offered a set mausoleum for victims of the Yak-42 errors, by all indications, were made ​​in identifying the bodies. This offer may not accept the family. I will do what they want, because burying the dead is up, and right of families.

My trip to Turkey restless and uncomfortable in the PP. Wish, and so I do know, I forget the Yakovlev but impossible. [Eduardo] Zaplana [spokeswoman last Aznar government] called me: “You’re going too fast and this can hurt you … In some circles of my party you are longing”. I answer that, “precisely because it is not hard to beat, I’m having problems with family members of those killed in the Yakovlev”.

Trillo write a letter in which I say: “Yesterday marked one year of the tragic crash of Yak-42, coinciding with the anniversary, traveled with family members of the deceased to Turkey. There, over dinner, I asked for peace, mercy and forgiveness. Rest in peace for the dead; and mercy and forgiveness for those without bad faith, we have committed an error. Families want the truth. I think they have a right to know what happened and why I received them and I’ve helped to DNA tests are practiced. I will continue to help supply them with all means at our disposal, so rest assured that from this ministry we speak with truth and heart. On several occasions I have said on this subject that I just want to honor the memory of the dead with the honor they deserve and lessen the pain of their families. I specifically stated that I do not want to be neither righteous nor inquisitor because in my ethical and political code should be no fuel hatred … ”

I arrive at Zarzuela to attend the Mass in honor of the Laureates Knights of the Order of San Fernando. I speak to Jemes [Chiefs of the three armies] of Yakovlev. I let them know what family members think of Jerne [Alejandre] and Trillo. The Jerne, hurt, said “some families it is impossible to do anything because they are installed in hate and others just want to humiliate the Army and get money.”

King Juan Carlos, during the funeral in Torrejón Air Base by 62 Spanish soldiers in the crash of Yak-42. / MIGUEL GENER

The King said to me: “What you doing well with families …” I say that the Funeral Flowers Shrewsbury was poorly organized and, for comment, add: “Some say that a single, quick ceremony for Reyes could be made attend a funeral and not only incomodarles with several different funeral acts “. “That’s a lie!”, I answered the King. “I’m not going to the opera, but for military acts have I insist … They did what they wanted, but I ordered anything.”

»Thursday, 07/01/2004. Dinner at a friend’s house. A PP leader warns me: “Rajoy said that we are behaving very well with you and that you are the minister who most harm us, but we have a lot of information about you and we’re going to paper as you continue with the Yakovlev … Admiral Torrente [Francisco Torrente Sanchez, Secretary General for Defence Policy with Bono and Navy chief with Trillo] is a traitor who was not loyal to any minister and neither will you. “ Paco Torrente is, in my view, one of the best soldiers of Spain.

»Friday, 02.07.2004. Lunch with Carlos Ripoll, Alfonso Agulló [brothers two soldiers killed in the incident] and counsel for the Association of Relatives. I give detailed information and dossier comprehensive on the case which confirms the outrages that were made ​​with our soldiers to force them to travel in conditions that should never do and then shamelessly who treated their bodies.

»Wednesday, 01.09.2004. I receive the report of the Forensic Medicine Institute on identifications Yak-42. It is confirmed in writing what we already knew: the 30 corpses identifications made ​​by the Spanish forensic false. What a disaster! Even the chance has been part of these negligent.

»Wednesday, 13.10.2004. I go to the Chiefs of Defence with the director of my cabinet, Roberto Lopez, to collect data from Yakovlev. I’m sick of not delivering me the documentation that I ask; I know they have it for a report of CNI [National Intelligence Centre]. I take the Chief of Defence [Felix Sanz] appear at a Committee of Congress, in his absence, not compromise it. I meet with the Jemacon [Chief of Joint Staff] and other officials. I noticed on guard, wary. They do not trust me and I do not trust them. After an hour of conversation and highlighting its contradictions I say that “in carrying Yakovlev not won but Spanish soldiers and I must say that this house did not act with due diligence”.They are on tenterhooks. Wonder where files are Yakovlev and me down to an office where there is a locked cabinet. They say the key is a commander who did not come today because he is ill. I force the closet.Saco roles and myself I select the ones that interest me. I am struck by the lack of care which have filed this documentation. I begin to place documents in a box. A colonel (2) tells me he has orders that do not go away without proper custody papers. I look at him angrily and ordered:.. “Call the Civil Guard to route and custodie to my office” It’s a way to show that I do not trust them and I prefer the Guardia Civil I will not step back . I take the documents are very important to establish that the Chiefs of Defence had great responsibility in hiring a plane that should never raise our soldiers. That documentation certifying that the insurance premium for passengers never hired, so the state had to pay it; there were up to six successive subcontracting; and, as a result of this chain of intermediaries, Defence paid 149,000 euros for flying the Yak-42 but the company that operated the airplane received 45,000 ¿. Who got the difference? It was the same in the 40 previous flights hired to transport the Spanish troops?

On December 2, the current President of the Republic has yet crossed a threshold in harmful nonsense.

Michael Guyader, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, was told by a scathing open letter exemplary and just I wish to inform the readers of Médiapart.

Here it is:


Open letter to the President of the Republic about his speech of December 2, 2008 at Erasme Hospital ANTONY regarding the hospitalization of Psychic Source.

Etampes, December 8, 2008 Mr. President, Eluard writes Gift House of Fools “my pain is defiled.” After the murder of Grenoble, your impatience to respond in the moment to suction at worst, it would be better to let sleeping in each of us and you does it seem so hard to contain, you brought in your speech December 2 at the hospital Erasme Antony to defile the suffering of our patients. Erasmus, author of “The Praise of Folly” could have been better inspire you, you who have shown your speech intention to end more than half a century of struggle against the evil fate of madness: the confinement behind the high walls, applying to it the treatment the most degrading extermination first, when barbarism claimed purify the race, stigma everyday due simply to be crazy. You have insulted the memory of Antony Bonnafé The Guillant Lacan Daumaison and many others, which my generation inherited the great work, and did their practical work of liberation of fertility whose madness carries, work release also thought of all, making his lost honor to the people most vulnerable to abuse of us. Lacan did he write “modern man is doomed to the most formidable social mess that we collect when it comes to us, it is to this being nil our daily task is to open the way again its meaning in a discrete fraternity, to the measure of which we are always too uneven. “And now, after a tragedy, certainly, but only a drama, you propose again the derisory panegyric of those that you then insult in asking them to do your dirty work. the doors close on the patient cohortsIn this drama, you make a generality, you designate our patients as well as dangerous, so that everyone will agree that they are more vulnerable than dangerous. Measure yourself, Mr. President, the incalculable importance of your words that will reinforce stigma crazy, caregivers put in the position of guards and alarm the good people living close to the care of instead of madness ? You give consistency to all the less rational fears that designating particular, assign it in places of confinement. You have just finished opening the Pandora’s box and to finish what you started the During your reply to the fishermen of Concarneau, your insult to the passing of the agricultural show, demeaning your function, so you déprenant the symbolic register without which social ties can only dissolve.So you, Mr. President, contributed to the destruction of social ties, pointing to the vengeance of the sick, and that, whatever the oratorical you rig your speech and whose honey and excessive violence that barely hide it is trying to hide. So you, under the appearance of order speech, helped create a major mess, thus undermining national unity, pointing to those who ask it, which my scapegoats years of practice showed me that they just can not defend themselves. Face your violence, it remains, each in its place, especially in my profession, that resist as much as possible. I affirm here my ardent . obligation not to implement your proposals degrading to exclude from the most vulnerable social landscape is true laws as thoughts, some are not respectable; I will not abide by the one you are announcing the next promulgation. Please accept, Sir, the highest consideration I have for your function. Dr. Michael GUYADER Department Head of the 8th sector in general psychiatry Essonne, Psychoanalyst .